Table 1

IPC Paralympics Impaired muscle power Reduced force generated by muscles or muscle groups, such as muscles of one limb or the lower half of the body, as caused, for example, by spinal cord injuries, spina bifida or polio spinal cord injuries, spina bifida or polio
Impaired passive range of movement Range of movement in one or more joints is reduced permanently, for example due to arthrogryposis. Hypermobility of joints, joint instability, and acute conditions, such as arthritis, are not considered eligible impairments. Arthrogryposis, ankylosis, post burns joint contractures
Limb deficiency Total or partial absence of bones or joints as a consequence of trauma (e.g. car accident), illness (e.g. bone cancer) or congenital limb deficiency (e.g. dysmelia). Amputation resulting from trauma or congenital limb deficiency
Leg length difference Bone shortening in one leg due to congenital deficiency or trauma. Congenital or traumatic causes of bone shortening in one leg
Short stature Reduced standing height due to abnormal dimensions of bones of upper and lower limbs or trunk, for example due to achondroplasia or growth hormone dysfunction. Achondroplasia, growth dysfunction
Hypertonia Abnormal increase in muscle tension and a reduced ability of a muscle to stretch, due to a neurological condition, such as cerebral palsy, brain injury or multiple sclerosis. Cerebral palsy, stroke, acquired brain injury, multiple sclerosis
Ataxia Lack of co-ordination of muscle movements due to a neurological condition, such as cerebral palsy, brain injury or multiple sclerosis. Ataxia resulting from cerebral palsy, brain injury, Friedreich’s ataxia, multiple sclerosis, spinocerebellar ataxia
Athetosis Generally characterised by unbalanced, involuntary movements and a difficulty in maintaining a symmetrical posture, due to a neurological condition, such as cerebral palsy, brain injury or multiple sclerosis. Cerebral palsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis.traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis.
Visual impairment Vision is impacted by either an impairment of the eye structure, optical nerves or optical pathways, or the visual cortex. Blindness Low vision Myopia, tunnel vision, scotoma, retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma, congenital cataract, macular degeneration
Intellectual Impairment A limitation in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour as expressed in conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills, which originates before the age of 18. Intellectual Disability Intellectual retardation, learning deficiency
ICSD Deaflympics Deaf Deaf, defined as a hearing loss of at least 55dB pure tone average (PTA) in the better ear (three-tone pure tone average at 500, 1000 and 2000 Hertz, air conduction, ISO 1969 Standard) Deaf
WTGF Transplant Transplant Recipients of organ, tissue and cell transplants, as well as living donors and donor families. Organ, tissue and cell transplants. Kidney, Liver, Heart, Lung, Pancreas, Bone-marrow, Small Bowel, Islet Cell
Special Olympics Intellectual disability (ID) Intellectual disability (ID) is a term used to describe a person with certain limitations in cognitive functioning and other skills, including communication and self-care. Intellectual disability